Informe sobre el país: Turkmenistan



1 Conscription

conscription exists

Turkmenistan decided to create its own armed forces in early 1992. However, their first full-scale military exercises did not occur until October 1995. [2]

military service

Military service lasts for two years - although according to another source the period is 18 months. [4] [6]

postponement and exemption

No information available.


No information available.

2 Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognized and there are no provisions for substitute service. [5]

There are no known cases of conscripts openly refusing to perform military service.

3 Draft evasion and desertion


Minister of Defence Kopekov stated in 1992 that legislation was being drafted whereby deserters would face "very severe measures, including criminal responsibility". [3]

No further details about this are known.


Draft evasion is widespread and has increased significantly since Turkmenistan became an independent state. It is caused by the poor conditions and human rights violations within the armed forces. Crime is a serious problem in the armed forces: in 1996 even President Niyazov referred to the problem of arms sales, drug smuggling and even the 'sale' of conscripts in remote garrisons by garrison leaders to local farmers. [2]

Desertion too is widespread. In 1994 there was said to be a 20 percent desertion rate - which would indicate approximately 2,000 soldiers deserted from the armed forces that year. [1]

It is not known how far draft evasion and desertion are actually monitored and punished.

6 Annual statistics

The armed forces are 16,000 to 18,000-strong - that is, about 0.40 percent of the population. [4]

Every year approximately 40,000 men reach conscription age. [4]


[1] Shishlevskiy, Valentin 1994. 'The Evolution of Turkmenistan's Armed Forces', in: Asian Defence Journal, 7/1994. [2] Kangas, Roger D. 1996. 'With an Eye on Russia, Central Asian Militaries Practice Cooperation', in: Transition, 9 August 1996. [3] Amnesty International 1992. Concerns in Europe November 1991 - April 1992. AI, London. [4] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London. [5] Amnesty International 1997. Out of the margins, the right to conscientious objections to military service in Europe. AI, London. [6] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1997. The question of conscientious objection to military service, report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/83. United Nations, Geneva.


Co related articles

20 Ago 2015

El Comité de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas ha llegado a la conclusión de que el estado de Turkmenistán ha violado el Artículo 7, el Artículo 10(1), y el Artículo 14(7) debido a que ha sido juzgado y condenado dos veces por su negativa a cumplir el servicio militar, y el Artículo 18(1).

7.2... El Comité observa que a la llegada del autor de la denuncia a la prisión LBK-12 el 3 de abril de 2012 fue objeto de malos tratos por los vigilantes de la cárcel, en violación del artículo 7 del Pacto. Observa que el autor ha aportado una descripción detallada de la forma en que fue maltratado mientras se hallaba en aislamiento, así como la identidad del organizador de sus malos tratos. El autor afirma que fue ubicado en el bloque de aislamiento de la prisión durante 10 días, fue golpeado, obligado a desfilar, hacer flexiones, correr y a sentarse en el suelo con las piernas estiradas. El Comité observa además que las detalladas alegaciones del autor y su argumentación en relación a la ausencia de mecanismos adecuados para la investigación de las denuncias de tortura en Turkmenistán no han sido refutadas por el Estado Parte. El Comité recuerda también que las denuncias de malos tratos deben ser investigadas inmediata e imparcialmente por las autoridades competentes.1 En ausencia de informaciones adicionales pertinentes en el expediente, el Comité decide que ha de concederse la debida credibilidad a las alegaciones del autor. En consecuencia, concluye que los hechos tal y como han sido presentados revelan una violación de los derechos del autor de acuerdo al artículo 7 del Pacto.

23 Abr 2013

The cases of ten Turkmen Jehovah's Witness conscientious objectors are being considered by the United Nations Human Rights Committee. The complainants, led by Navruz Nasyrlaev, filed complaints of torture and violation of their rights to freedom of religion or belief with the UN Human Rights Committee on 3 September 2012.

These complaints have noted that in the Seydi Labour Camp - where most conscientious objectors (COs) are held - COs have regularly been subjected to spells in the punishment cell, whilst some have been brutally beaten.

01 Mayo 2012

While another conscientious objector was sent to prison for two years (see co-alert, 1 May 2012), Turkmenistan's human rights record was for the first time examined by the Human Rights Committee during it's 104th session in New York.

30 Mar 2012

Human Rights Committee
104th session
New York, 12–30 March 2012

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant

Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee



14 Feb 2011

Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or
belief, Heiner Bielefeldt

Summary of cases transmitted to Governments and replies received


(a) Allegations transmitted to the Government

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