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La guerre est-elle nécessaire pour obtenir justice ?

Le « German Marshall Fund » des États Unis effectue une étude annuelle sur les grandes « tendances transatlantiques », dont on peut faire une lecture intéressante. Une des questions posées est : « Merci de nous dire dans quelle mesure vous êtes d'accord avec l'affirmation suivante : dans certaines circonstances, la guerre est nécessaire pour obtenir justice. » (Q29.2). Les réponses sont assez révélatrices (cf le graphique ci-dessous).

Conscientious objection: Legal practices and frameworks among EU member states

In this presentation I will give an overview of the right to conscientious objection, its legal practices and frameworks in the 27 European Union member states. Before I do so, I want to step back a bit and have a brief look at the existing international standards about the right to conscientious objection, as these standards allow us to put the practices in the EU member states into a perspective.



  • Romania abolished conscription in 2007.

European Committee of Social Rights: Conclusions 2006 (Romania)

Service to replace military service

In its previous conclusions, the Committee considered that the situation was not in conformity because the length of the alternative service to military service, 24 months instead of 12, was excessive. It took the view that the additional 12 months, during which the persons concerned were deprived of the right to earn a living through freely undertaken work, went beyond reasonable limits in relation to the length of military service.

Fin de la conscription en Roumanie

La Roumanie est le dernier pays a avoir finalement mis un terme à la conscription. La transition vers une armée entièrement professionnelle pour se mettre au niveau des standards de l'OTAN a été préparée depuis un moment. Depuis les années 90, la taille de l'armée roumaine et le nombre des conscrits ont été considérablement réduits. En 2003, la constitution fut amendée afin de permettre l'abolition de la conscription.

Romania follows suit - conscription to be abolished on 1 January 2007

Romania is the next country in South-East Europe to follow the trend to end conscription. In Romania too this is part of a project to modernise the military, and has little to do with disarmament. According to a report by the Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR), Bucharest has agreed to transform its army from a Wassaw Pact mammoth into a lean, mobile force that is compatible with NATO's needs. Romania joined NATO in 2004, and also has troops in Iraq as part of the Coalition of the Willing.

The Right to Conscientious Objection to Military Service in selected member states of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe

Related peace activists: 
The right to conscientious objection is derived from Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and seen as a manifestation of the freedom of religion and belief. The then CSCE stressed the right to conscientious objection in paragraph 18 of the Document of the Copenhagen meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension in June 1990.The UN Commission on Human Rights stressed the right to conscientious objection in several resolution, most recently Resolution 1998/77, 2000/34, 2002/45. The Council of Europe also stresses the right to conscientious objection, especially in resolution 337 (1967) and recommendations 1518 (2001), R (87) 8, and 816 (1977).
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