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Sri Lanka

"Surveillez vos arrières" - Notes sur l'État militarisé au Sri Lanka

Prasanna Ratnayake

Le Sri Lanka a une longue histoire de violences armées et de massacres depuis 1948, date où cet État est devenu indépendant de la Grande Bretagne. Il y eut les émeutes ethniques en 1953, ‘58, ‘77, ‘83 et ‘87 ; deux insurrections en 1971 puis de 1986 à 1990 ; et une guerre civile de 30 ans entre les Tigres de libération de l'Îlam tamoul (LTTE ou Tigres tamouls) du nord et de l'est d'une part, et les Nationalistes cinghalais au sud d'autre part. La guerre s'est terminée le 19 mai 2009 avec le massacre de dizaines de milliers de civils tamouls. À ce moment là, la populations des déplacé.e.s internes (IDPs) dépassaient les 300 000 personnes.

Art Exhibition, ColomboArt Exhibition, Colombo

Cette note s'intéresse aux dix années séparant l'arrivée au pouvoir de l'ancien avocat des droits de l'Homme, Mahinda Rajapakse, en novembre 2005 et la fin de son règne le 9 janvier 2015. Une myriade de partis politiques, des bouddhistes cinghalais ultra-nationalistes aux socialistes, aux marxistes, en passant par le parti des moines bouddhistes, avait soutenu la candidature de Rajapakse. Dès qu'il devint président, d'un claquement de doigts, nous sommes entrés dans l'ère de ce qui allait devenir un État policier entièrement militarisé. Nous nous sommes réveillés un matin et avons découvert des barrages militaires, des policiers et des soldats ainsi que des véhicules militaires à chaque coin de rue. Cynthia Enloe l'a bien décrit : « La militarisation est le procédé par étapes qui rend une chose contrôlée par l'armée, dépendante de l'armée ou qui est valorisée par l'institution ou des critères militaires. » (Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women's Lives, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2000, non traduit en français

Traiter le passé à Batticaloa (Sri Lanka)

In Le fusil brisé 2004, no 60 centré sur traiter le passé.

Roberta Bacic

Peacebuilding in Tsunami-affected areas

It is estimated that women comprised up to 70% of Aceh's pre-tsunami population of four million people. Men fled the war or emigrated in search of work. According to a short update by Nonviolence International: "Given that more men survived the tsunami because of their physical strength and speed, a horrendous percentage of those killed probably were women and girls."

Dealing with the past in Batticaloa in Sri Lanka

Roberta Bacic

WRI had already visited Sri Lanka and had been in Batticaloa in March 2003. As a follow up of this we decided to accompany the process of dealing with the past with war affected women. Rajan Iruthayanathan organised the workshop with local organisers and activists who know well the people, history and politics of the area. The women came from two villages, where almost each family has lost somebody during the war.

We wrote in our proposal:

Sri Lanka

The ceasefire between Sri Lanka Security Forces and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), has lasted now for two years though many issues have not been dealt with and tensions remain. Nevertheless people are now turning their attention from the immediate fear of direct attacks to reconstruction, rehabilitation, and resettlement of displaced and war affected communities. In addition to this some who have long-term vision want to pose questions related to the responsibility for war crimes and the remedial measures for those who under went trauma.

Brief account of the experience in Batticaloa working with war widows from the perspective of Dealing with the Past

1st visit to Batticaloa, March 19th to 21st 2003 (see report)

2nd visit to Batticaloa, January 25th to 28th 2004

Organisers:

  • Rajan Iruthayanathan from Batticaloa, at present doing an MA in London, UK
  • N.I. Christy, from ZOA (refugee care service)
  • C.

Sri Lanka

25/07/1998

1 Conscription

conscription does not exist

Since 1983 a civil war has being waged between the Srilankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The civil war is being waged mainly in the northern and eastern provinces of the country.

Because of the civil war the armed forces have been considerably expanded, from 20,000 troops in the early 1980s to 115,000 in 1997.

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