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Seabrook—Wyhl—Marckolsheim: Transnational Links in a Chain of Campaigns

When 18 people walked onto the construction site of the Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant in New Hampshire on 1 August 1976, it was the first collective nonviolent direct action against nuclear power in the USA. Many opponents of nuclear power considered such tactics too radical. Later that month, when 180 people committed civil disobedience at the site, the organizers, the Clamshell Alliance, used nonviolence training and the affinity group structure for the first time. In the future, these elements became well-known and practised throughout the nonviolent social change movement. On 30 April 1977 over 2400 people, organized in hundreds of affinity groups, occupied the site. During the next two days 1415 were arrested, many jailed for two weeks. This action inspired the anti-nuclear power movement and created a new international model for organizing actions which consisted of training for nonviolent direct action and consensus decision-making in a non-hierarchical affinity group structure.

Frédéric Foin v. France



9 November 1999

Original: ENGLISH


Sixty-seventh session

18 October - 5 November 1999


Submitted by : Frédéric Foin (represented by François Roux, lawyer in France)

Alleged victim: The author

State party: France

Date of communication: 20 July 1995 (initial submission)

Date of adoption of Views: 9 November 1999

Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: France

4 August 1997


19. The Committee is concerned that in order to exercise the right to conscientious objection to military service, which is a part of freedom of conscience under article 18 of the Covenant, the application must be made in advance of the conscript's entry into military service and that the right cannot be exercised thereafter. Moreover, the Committee notes that the length of alternative service is twice as long as military service and that this may raise issues of compatibility with article 18 of the Covenant.


French Women Say “Non à la guerre”

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A framework for female objection to military service was one of the fruits of the “Assises de l'objection”, a three-day meeting on CO issues organised by the Le Cun du Larzac community in southern France.

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